1 Lorenzo Tondo, “Sicilian Fishermen Risk Prison to Rescue Migrants: ‘No Human Would Turn Away,’” The Guardian, August 3, 2019, sec. World news, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/aug/03/sicilian-fishermen-risk-prison-to-rescue-migrants-off-libya-italy-salvini.
2 Lorenzo Tondo, “Italy Adopts Decree That Could Fine Migrant Rescuers up to €50,000,” The Guardian, June 15, 2019, sec. World news, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/jun/15/italy-adopts-decree-that-could-fine-migrant-rescue-ngo-aid-up-to-50000.
3 Tondo, “Sicilian Fishermen Risk Prison to Rescue Migrants.”
4 Felicity Lawrence et al., “Revealed: Trafficked Migrant Workers Abused in Irish Fishing Industry,” The Guardian, November 2, 2015, sec. Global development, https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/nov/02/revealed-trafficked-migrant-workers-abused-in-irish-fishing-industry.
5 MRCI, “Left High and Dry. The Exploitation of Migrant Workers in the Irish Fishing Industry” (Migrant Rights Centre Ireland, 2017), 10, https://www.mrci.ie/app/uploads/2020/01/MRCI-FISHER-REPORT-Dec-2017-2KB.pdf.
6 In addition to drawing on secondary literature on the topic, this short article is based on fieldwork in which we carried out interviews with fishers, refugees and people who work in public institutions engaging in ocean governance in Spain, France and Greece throughout 2018 and 2019. Reflections are also drawn from periods of work on fishing boats, both industrial and small-scale with local and non-local fishers as well as through engagement with organisations providing support for refugees in Paris and Athens.
7 H. Nyamnjoh, “We Get Nothing from Fishing”: Fishing for Boat Opportunities amongst Senegalese Fisher Migrants (Cameroon and The Netherlands: African Studies Centre and Langaa Publishers, 2010), 29–30, https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/22174.
8 Nyamnjoh, 2010 cited in Juliette Hallaire, “Constructing Maritime Geographies: The Pragmatic Mobility of Senegalese Fishermen” (PhD, Keele University, 2015), 181.
9 Hallaire, 183.
10 Hallaire, 182.
11 Clare Cummings et al., “Why People Move: Understanding the Drivers and Trends of Migration to Europe,” Working Paper (London: Overseas Development Institute, 2015), 18.
12 Cummings et al., 18.
13 Heidrun Friese, “Thalassographies of Departure, Disaster and Rescue: Fishermen and Undocumented Mobility,” Etnofoor 27, no. 1 (2015): 21.
14 Field notes, June 21, 2019, Barcelona.
15 Elyse Mills et al., “EU Fisheries Agreements: Cheap Fish for a High Price,” Policy Brief (Amsterdam, Copenhagen and Cape Town: Masifundise, Afrika Kontakt, Transnational Institute (TNI), November 2017), 5.
16 Mills et al., 9; see also: https://www.worldfishing.net/news101/regional-focus/senegal#:~:text=Employment%20in%20fisheries%20provides%20income,protein%20consumed%20in%20the%20country.
17 Julliete Hallaire, “Maritime Migration from Senegal to Spain: Fishermen’s Experiences,” in EurAfrican Borders and MIgration Management. Political Cultures, Contested Spaces and Ordinary Lives, ed. Paolo Gaibazzi, Stephan Dunnwald, and Alice Bellagamba, Palgrave Series in African Borderlands Studies (Palgrave Macmillan US, 2017), 228.
18 Mills et al., “EU Fisheries Agreements: Cheap Fish for a High Price,” 9.
19 Juliette Hallaire and Deirdre McKay, “Sustaining Livelihoods: Mobility and Governance in the Senegalese Atlantic,” in Water Worlds: Human Geographies of the Ocean, ed. Kimberley Peters and Jon Anderson (London: Routledge, 2014), 136, https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Deirdre_Mckay/publication/289810727_Sustaining_livelihoods_Mobility_and_governance_in_the_Senegalese_Atlantic/links/57e8343208aed7fe466bd1b4/Sustaining-livelihoods-Mobility-and-governance-in-the-Senegalese-Atlantic.pdf.
20 Hallaire, “Constructing Maritime Geographies: The Pragmatic Mobility of Senegalese Fishermen,” 178.
21 Hallaire, 179.
22 Nyamnjoh, We Get Nothing from Fishing, 4–5.
23 Nyamnjoh, We Get Nothing from Fishing, 4–5.
24 Laura Dean, “For Women Left behind in Senegal, the Exodus to Europe Brings Rewards, Risk and Regret,” The Globe and Mail, May 28, 2017, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/senegal-women-migrants-europe/article35111369/.
25 Hallaire, “Constructing Maritime Geographies: The Pragmatic Mobility of Senegalese Fishermen,” 215–16.
26 Nicole Ngongala’s presentation during panel at conference: “Vidas que Cruzan fronteras”, Bilbao, Oct. 3-4, 2019.
27 M Kaplan and H. L Kite-Powell, “Safety at Sea and Fisheries Management:: Fishermen’s Attitudes and the Need for Co-Management,” Marine Policy 24, no. 6 (November 1, 2000): 495, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-597X(00)00026-9.
28 Cornwall Rural Community Charity and Rose Regeneration, “Fishing for a Future. An Analysis of Need, Challenges and Opportunities in UK Fishing Communities” (UK: Seafarers UK, 2018), 27, https://www.seafarers.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Seafarers-UK-Fishing-For-a-Future-Report.pdf.
29 Patrick Franklin, “Innovative Recruitment Strategies in the Fisheries Sector” (UK: European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2007), 21, https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_files/pubdocs/2007/531/en/1/ef07531en.pdf.
30 Denis Loctier, “Family-Run Fisheries Struggle as New Generation Casts Net Wider,” Euronews, January 21, 2020, In partnership with the European Commission edition, sec. knowledge_science_technology, https://www.euronews.com/2020/01/21/family-run-fisheries-struggle-as-new-generation-casts-net-wider.
32 Rupert Crilly and Aniol Esteban, “Jobs Lost at Sea” (London: New Economics Foundation, 2012), 2, https://b.3cdn.net/nefoundation/e966d4ce355b7485c1_a7m6brn5t.pdf.
33 Franklin, “Innovative Recruitment Strategies in the Fisheries Sector,” 21.
35 Lawrence et al., “Revealed” ; https://seafarersrights.org/seafarers-subjects/fishers-and-plunders/accident-statistics/
36 Cornwall Rural Community Charity and Rose Regeneration, “Fishing for a Future. An Analysis of Need, Challenges and Opportunities in UK Fishing Communities,” 27.
39 Lawrence et al., “Revealed.”
40 Lawrence et al.
41 See: https://justiceforfishers.org/ireland/
42 Natalia Valiño, “Marineros de bajo coste,” El País, October 2, 2007, sec. Galicia, https://elpais.com/diario/2007/10/02/galicia/1191320305_850215.html.
43 Frederic De Wispelaere and Jozef Pacolet, “Posting of Workers. Report on A1 Portable Documents Issued in 2017,” Network Statistics FMSSFE (Brussels: European Commission and HIVA KU Leuven, 2018), 8, https://www.etk.fi/wp-content/uploads/Komissio-tilastoraportti-Posting-of-workers-2017.pdf.
44 De Wispelaere and Pacolet, 51–52.
45 Monika Kiss, “Understanding Social Dumping in the European Union,” EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service (European Parliament, March 2017), 2, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/599353/EPRS_BRI(2017)599353_EN.pdf.
46 MRAG Ltd, Coffey and AND International, Study on the Employment of Non-Local Labour in the Fisheries Sector (Luxembourg: European Commission, 2016), xv.
48 Yasha Maccanico et al., “The Shrinking Space for Solidarity with Migrants and Refugees: How the European Union and Member States Target and Criminalize Defenders of the Rights of People on the Move” (Amsterdam: Transnational Institute (TNI), 2018), 6, https://www.tni.org/files/publication-downloads/web_theshrinkingspace.pdf.
49 Tondo, “Sicilian Fishermen Risk Prison to Rescue Migrants.”